Antioxidant Profiling, Phytochemical Investigation and Pharmacognostic Evaluation of <i>Nephrolepis biserrata</i> (SW.) Schott (Nephrolepidaceae)


  • Bamisaye O. Oyawaluja Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lagos, Idi-Araba Campus, Lagos, Nigeria.
  • Aminat A. Oyawaluja Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lagos, Idi-Araba Campus, Lagos, Nigeria.
  • Dolapo E. Akinyimika Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lagos, Idi-Araba Campus, Lagos, Nigeria.
  • Olukemi A Odukoya Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lagos, Idi-Araba Campus, Lagos, Nigeria.
  • Herbert A.B. Coker Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lagos, Idi-Araba Campus, Lagos, Nigeria.



Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Macroscopy, Microscopy, Antioxidant, Phytoconstituents, Nephrolepis biserrata


Natural product chemistry has contributed immensely to the discovery of bioactive compounds and the development of pharmaceutical agents. In this study, the ethanol extract ofNephrolepis biserrata L. was evaluated. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical screening was done. The proximate composition was also determined. The antioxidant property was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC), and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP). The phytochemical analysis of the ethanol fraction was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Macroscopy and microscopy of the plant were done using standard methods. The preliminary qualitative phytochemical screening confirmed the presence of active chemical constituents such as alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, and triterpenoids. The quantification showed that the ethanol extract ofN. biserrata is rich in phenolic, tannin, and flavonoid contents. The proximate analysis showed that the ethanol extract ofN. biserrata has high crude fat content and a significant amount of crude protein and fiber. The antioxidant assays suggested that the extract contains antioxidant compounds. Microscopy of the plant showed a diacytic type of stomata, irregular epidermal cells, and a conspicuous absence of trichomes. The leave type is simple and alternately arranged with sori present on the serrated margin. Venation is pinnate, apex is acuminate while the base is oblong. The results demonstrated that the ethanol extract ofN. biserratarepresents a good source of antioxidants that could be used in the pharmaceutical industry. The pharmacognostic parameters could also serve to identify and authenticate the plant among other ferns.


Metrics Loading ...


Lautie E, Russo O, Ducrot P, Boutin JA. Unraveling plant natural chemical diversity for drug discovery purposes. Front. pharmacol. 2020; 11:397.

Najmi A, Javed SA, Al-Bratty M, Alhazmi HA. Modern approaches in the discovery and development of plant-based natural products and their analogues as potential therapeutic agents. Mol. 2022; 27(2):349.

Oiseoghaede JO, Oyawaluja AA, Sowemimo AA, Odukoya OA, Che CT. Antiproliferative Potential of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Motandra guineensis (Thonn.) A.DC. (Apocynaceae) against Human Melanoma and Ovarian Cancer Cells. Trop J. Nat Prod Res. 2024; 8(3):6700-6704.

El-Saadony MT, Zabermawi NM, Zabermawi NM, Burollus MA, Shafi ME, Alagawany M, Yehia N, Askar AM, Alsafy SA, Noreldin AE, Khafaga AF. Nutritional aspects and health benefits of bioactive plant compounds against infectious diseases: a review. Food Rev Int. 2023; 39(4):2138-60.

Bhat SG. Medicinal plants and its pharmacological values. Nat med plants. 2021; 12:217-28.

Mazumder PM, Percha V, Farswan M, Upaganlawar A. Cassia: A wonder gift to medical sciences. Int J. Clin Pharm. 2008; 1(2):16-38.

Singh A, Kukreti R, Saso L, Kukreti S. Oxidative stress: a key modulator in neurodegenerative diseases. Mol. 2019; 24(8):1583.

Joshi M, Prabhakar B. Phytoconstituents and pharmaco‐therapeutic benefits of pitaya: A wonder fruit. J. Food Biochem. 2020; 44(7):e13260.

Jamshidi-Kia F, Wibowo JP, Elachouri M, Masumi R, Salehifard-Jouneghani A, Abolhassanzadeh Z, Lorigooini Z. Battle between plants as antioxidants with free radicals in human body. J. Herbmed Pharmacol. 2020; 9(3):191-9.

Bassey ME, Johnny II, Umoh OT, Douglas FT. Phytomedicinal potentials of species of Nephrolepis (Schott.). World J. Pharm Res. 2020; 9(4):1400-10.

Langeland KA. Natural Area Weeds: Distinguishing Native and Non-Native" Boston Ferns" and" Sword Ferns"(Nephrolepis spp.). University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, EDIS; 2001.

Boonkerd T, Chantanaorrapint S, Khwaiphan W. Pteridophyte diversity in the tropical lowland rainforest of Khao Nan national park, Nakhon Si Thammarat province, Thailand. Trop. Nat. Hist. 2008; 8(2): 83-97.

Ibiye A, Green BO, Ajuru MG. Comparative foliar epidermal study of some species of pteridophytes in Rivers State University, Nigeria. Cell Biol Dev. 2023; 7(2).

Jiofack T, Fokunang C, Kemeuze V, Fongnzossie E, Tsabang N, Nkuinkeu R, Mapongmetsem PM, Nkongmeneck BA. Ethnobotany and phytopharmacopoea of the South-West ethnoecological region of Cameroon. J. Med. Plant Res. 2008; 2(8):197-206.

Shah MD, Gnanaraj C, Haque AE, Iqbal M. Antioxidative and chemopreventive effects of Nephrolepis biserrata against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress and hepatic dysfunction in rats. Pharm Bio. 2015; 53(1):31-39.

Shaikh JR, Patil M. Qualitative tests for preliminary phytochemical screening: An overview. Int J. Chem Stud. 2020; 8(2):603-608.

Trease GE, Evans WC. A Textbook of Pharmacognosy. 13th Edition. Bailliere Tindal Limited, London. 2009: 0-58, 224-232.

Alhaithloul HA, Soliman MH, Ameta KL, El-Esawi MA, Elkelish A. Changes in ecophysiology, osmolytes, and secondary metabolites of the medicinal plants of Mentha piperita and Catharanthus roseus subjected to drought and heat stress. Biomol. 2019; 10(1):43.

Madaan R, Bansal G, Kumar S, Sharma A. Estimation of total phenols and flavonoids in extracts of Actaea spicata roots and antioxidant activity studies. Indian J. Pharm Sci. 2011; 73(6):666.

Minh-Huy D, Anh-Dao LT, Thanh-Nho N, Nhon-Duc L, Cong-Hau N. Smartphone-based digital images as a low-cost and simple colorimetric approach for the assessment of total phenolic contents in several specific Vietnamese dried tea products and their liquors. Food Chem. 2023; 401:134147.

Devi CB, Bains K, Kaur H. Effect of drying procedures on nutritional composition, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum L). J. Food Sci Technol. 2019; 56:491-496.

Osiyemi OA. Comparative Therapeutic Phytoconstituents of Senecio biafrea (Oliv. and Hiern) J. Moore and Vernonia amygdalina Del. Ine-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference. 2023:372-377.

Ijoma KI, Ajiwe VI, Odinma SC. The organic extracts from the leaves of Ficus thonningii Blume, Jatropha tanjorensis JL Ellis and Saroja and Justicia carnea Lindley as potential nutraceutical antioxidants and functional foods. Trends Phytochem Res. 2023; 7(1):76-85.

Turkoglu I. Screening of total phenolic, antiradical and antioxidant activities of Wiedemannia orientalis. Cell mol biol. 2018; 64(12):42-6.

Ulewicz-Magulska B, Wesolowski M. Total phenolic contents and antioxidant potential of herbs used for medical and culinary purposes. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2019; 74:61-67.

Malik T, Madan VK, Dhanda T. Assessment of Medicinal Plants through Proximate and Micronutrients Analysis. J. Plant Dev Sci. 2020; 12(4):223-229.

Zekri N, Elazzouzi H, Ailli A, Gouruch AA, Radi FZ, El Belghiti MA, Zair T, Nieto G, Centeno JA, Lorenzo JM. Physicochemical characterization and antioxidant properties of essential oils of M. pulegium (L.), M. suaveolens (Ehrh.) and M. spicata (L.) from Moroccan Middle-Atlas. Foods.

Feb 9;12(4):760.

Islam MS, Haque MM, Hossain MS. Estimation of moisture and crude protein content of locally available raw materials for poultry feed. Int J. Pharm Sci Res. 2015; 6(5):1900.

Dave H, Ledwani L. A review on anthraquinones isolated from Cassia species and their applications. Indian J Nat Prod Resour. 2012; 3(3):291-319.

Saxena M, Saxena J, Nema R, Singh D, Gupta A. Phytochemistry of medicinal plants. J. Pharmacogn Phytochem. 2013; 1(6):168-182.

Cai X, Sha F, Zhao C, Zheng Z, Zhao S, Zhu Z, Zhu H, Chen J, Chen Y. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of novel steroidal chalcones with 3β-pregnenolone ester derivatives in RAW 264.7 cells in vitro. Steroids. 2021; 171:108830.

Luo H, Chen J, Su C, Zha L. Advances in the Bioactivities of Phytochemical Saponins in the Prevention and Treatment of Atherosclerosis. Nutrients. 2022; 14(23):4998.

Shah MD, Yong YS, Iqbal M. Phytochemical investigation and free radical scavenging activities of essential oil, methanol extract and methanol fractions of Nephrolepis biserrata. Int J. Pharm and Pharm Sci. 2014; 6(9):269-277.

Shakirin FH, Prasad KN, Ismail A, Yuon LC, Azlan A. Antioxidant capacity of underutilized Malaysian Canarium odontophyllum (dabai) Miq. fruit. J. Food Compos Anal. 2010; 23(8):777-781.

Liu HM, Cheng MY, Xun MH, Zhao ZW, Zhang Y, Tang W, Cheng J, Ni J, Wang W. Possible mechanisms of oxidative stress-induced skin cellular senescence, inflammation, and cancer and the therapeutic potential of plant polyphenols. Int J. Mol Sci. 2023; 24(4):3755.

Okoli BJ, Okere OS. Antimicrobial activity of the phytochemical constituents of Chrysophyllum albidum G. Don_Holl.(African Star apple) plant. J. Res in Nat. Dev. 2010; 8(1):1035-1037.

Chinonye II, Maureen CO, Lynda O. Minerals and phytochemical constituents of Mangifera indica seed kernel obtained from Eastern Nigeria. Afr. J. Agric Food Sci. 2018; 1(2):1-11.

Yu M, Gouvinhas I, Rocha J, Barros AI. Phytochemical and antioxidant analysis of medicinal and food plants towards bioactive food and pharmaceutical resources. Sci. Rep. 2021; 11(1):10041.

Surguchov A, Bernal L, Surguchev AA. Phytochemicals as regulators of genes involved in synucleinopathies. Biomol. 2021; 11(5):624.

Garg G, Bharadwaj A, Chaudhary S, Gupta V. Chemical profiling of bioactive compounds in the methanolic extract of wild leaf and callus of Vitex negundo using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. World J. Exp Med. 2024; 14(1)




How to Cite

Oyawaluja, B. O., Oyawaluja, A. A., Akinyimika, D. E., Odukoya, O. A., & Coker, H. A. (2024). Antioxidant Profiling, Phytochemical Investigation and Pharmacognostic Evaluation of <i>Nephrolepis biserrata</i> (SW.) Schott (Nephrolepidaceae). Tropical Journal of Phytochemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3(2), :208–215.