Nutritional and Organoleptic Assessment of Composite Bread Containing Processed Conventional Mango and Wild Mango Kernels


  • Adams A. Omada Department of Biochemistry, Kogi State University, PMB 1008, Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria
  • Sunday S. Arogba Department of Biochemistry, Kogi State University, PMB 1008, Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria
  • Francis O. Atanu Department of Biochemistry, Kogi State University, PMB 1008, Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria



Organoleptic, Mangifera indica, Irvingia gabonensis, Defatting, Blanching


The study assessed the nutritional composition of composite bread formulations. Hence, wheat flour was substituted with either defatted or blanched conventional mango (Mangifera indica) or wild mango (Irvingia gabonensis) kernel powder at 50% and 75% levels. A reference wheat and composite bread samples were baked, and analysed using standard instrumental techniques for proximate, vitamin and mineral composition, fatty acid and amino acid profiles. The bread samples were organoleptically evaluated by randomly chosen panelists using a 9-point preference scale. Results indicated varied concentrations of nutrients and energy content, as significantly influenced by processing and levels of kernel substitution in bread formulations. Crude fibre, ash and protein concentrations of particularly Irvingia-based bread samples were highest followed by those of Mangifera, and 100% wheat in that order (p < 0.05). Essential amino acids concentrations were significantly higher in Mangifera-based bread than those of Irvingia and 100% wheat. The two composite bread-types at 50% substitution and the 100% wheat bread met the WHO/FAO standard of PUFA/SFA (> 0.4). The K/Na ratio also was enhanced by 200% through the blanching technique employed. The 75% substitution level increased Ca, Fe and vitamin concentrations. The level of kernel substitution in bread samples significantly influenced their sensory assessment as bread with 50% substitutions were rated next to the conventional 100% wheat bread in overall acceptability. Results have shown that the composite bread samples of 50% Mangifera and defatted Irvingia had better quality indices than the conventional wheat bread.


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How to Cite

Omada, A. A., Arogba, S. S., & Atanu, F. O. (2024). Nutritional and Organoleptic Assessment of Composite Bread Containing Processed Conventional Mango and Wild Mango Kernels. Tropical Journal of Phytochemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3(2), 179–188.