Haematological, Renal and Gastric Effects of Ethanol Leaf Extract of <i>Bauhinia variegate</i> Linn


  • Joseph S. Oyepata Departmennt of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University, Oye–Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria
  • Adegbuyi T. Adekunle Departmennt of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University, Oye–Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria




Stomach, Renal function, Haematological parameters, Plant extract, Bauhinia variegata


Bauhinia variegata (Linn.) is a tropical plant used in many traditional system of medicine in the treatment of a variety of diseases including renal and gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the haematological, renaland gastric effects of Bauhinia variegataethanol leaf extract in rats. Wistar rats of either sex were divided into four groups and treated as follows; Group 1 received distilled water (10 mL/kg), Groups 2, 3, and 4 received 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of B. variegate leaf ethanol extract, respectively, orally once daily for 28 days. After the 28th day, the rats were weighed and sacrificed. Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture and used for hematological and biochemical analyses. Histopathological examination of the kidney and stomach was done following standard procedure. Result of the haematological analysis shows that ethanol leaf extract of Bauhinia variegataat 200 mg/kg caused a significant decrease in the serum levels of white blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), haemoglobin (Hgb), haematocrit (HCT), mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and platelets (PLT), while other parameters were same as that of the control group. No significant alteration in renal function parameters at all doses test except for an increase in serum creatinine. Histological examination of the kidneys and stomach show no abnormal tissue architecture following treatment with Bauhinia variegata extract. These observations indicate that Bauhinia variegate leaf extract is relatively safe on short term administration, but be used with caution under chronic conditions.


Metrics Loading ...


Cruchaud A and Juditz E. "An analysis of gastric parietal cell antibodies and thyroid cell antibodies in patients with pernicious anaemia and thyroid disorders". ClinExpImmunol. 1968; 3(8):771–781.

Ackroff K, Lucas F, Sclafani A. "Flavor preference conditioning as a function of fat source". PhysiolBehav. 2005; 85(4):448–460.

Cotran RS, Kumar V, Fausto N, Robbins SL, Abbas AK. Robbins and Cotran pathologic basis of disease. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders. 2005.

Konopka RJ and Benzer S. "Clock Mutants of Drosophila melanogaster". ProcNatlAcad Sci. U.S.A. 1971; 68(9):2112–2116.

Cotran RS, Kumar VF, Nelson NF, Robbins SL, Abbas AK. Robbins and Cotran pathologic basis of disease (7th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders. 2005; 878 p.

Kalantar-Zadeh K, McCullough PA, Agarwal SK, Beddhu S, Boaz M,Bruchfeld A, et al. "Nomenclature in nephrology: preserving 'renal' and 'nephro' in the glossary of kidney health and disease". J Nephrol.2021; 34(3):639–648.

Simeon JO and Tosin JO. Toxicological Evaluation of Sub-Chronic Administration of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Ocimum canum on Lipid Parameters, Heart Histology and Feed Consumption of Wistar Rats. CaJoST; 2024 Vol. 6 No. 1. Pp. 70-76.

Mescher AL. Junqueira's Basic Histology, 14th edition. Lange. 2016; 393 p.

Doniach D, Roitt IM, Taylor KB. "Autoimmunity in pernicious anemia and thyroiditis: a family study". Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1965; 124(2):605–625..

Kalantar-Zadeh K, Jafar TH, Nitsch D, Neuen BL, Perkovic V. "Chronic kidney disease" (PDF). Lancet. 2021; 398 (10302):786–802.

Lv JC and Zhang LX. "Prevalence and Disease Burden of Chronic Kidney Disease". Renal Fibrosis: Mechanisms and Therapies. AdvExp Med Biol. 2019; 1165:3–15.

Oyepata JS, Opeyemi JT, Adekunle AT, Moses OA. Effect of Pterocarpus santalinus Ethanol Leaf Extract on Haematological, Histopathological and Lipid Profile Indices in Wistar Rats. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2024; 8(3):6681-6685.

Lahner E, Conti L, Cicone F, CaprielloS,CazzatoM,Centanni M, Annibale B, Virili C. "Thyro-entero-gastric autoimmunity: Pathophysiology and implications for patient management. A review". Best Pract Res ClinEndocrinolMetab. 2009; 33 (6):101373.

Joseph OS, Joseph OT, El-Gazzar AM, Mahmoud MH, Omoirri MA, and Gaber ESB. Toxicological evaluation of ethanol leaf extract of Pterocarpus santalinus on lungs, stomach, brain and hematological parameters of Wistar rats. Cogent Food & Agriculture, 2024;10(1), 1-9

Barnes RD. Invertebrate Zoology (5th ed.). Saunders College Pub. 1987. p. 1.

Modupe BI, Simeon JO, Tosin JO. Toxicological study of ethanol extract of Lavandulastoechas on Liver of Wistar rat. Int J AdvEngManag. 2022; 4(9):892-901.

Maton A, Jean H, Charles WM, Susan J, Maryanna QW, David L, Jill DW. Human Biology and Health. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA:1993.

Balavoine G. "The segmented Urbilateria: A testable scenario". Integr Comp Biol. 2003; 43(1):137–147.

Oyepata JS and Opeyemi JT. Evaluation of Proliferative Potential of Musa Paradisiaca Stem Juice on the Pancreatic Cells of Wistar Rats. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2024; 8(1):6035-6038.

BullochTH and Kutch W. "Are the main grades of brains different principally in numbers of connections or also in quality?". In Breidbach O (ed.). The nervous systems of invertebrates: an evolutionary and comparative approach. Birkhäuser. 1995; 439 p.

Lote CJ. Principles of Renal Physiology, 5th edition. Springer. 2012; 21 p.

Simeon JO, Tosin JO, Zubairu SA, Daniel MF. Toxicological evaluation of Lavandula stoechas on heart and blood of wistar rat. Int J AdvEngManag. 2022; 4(4):1233-1241.

Chanda S, Parekh J, Karathia NN. Evaluation of antibacterial activity and phytochemical analysis of Bauhinia variegata L. bark.Afr J Biomed Res. 2006;9:53–56.

Perez C,Ackroff K, Sclafani A. "Carbohydrate- and protein conditioned flavor preferences: effects of nutrient preloads". PhysiolBehav. 1996; 59(3):467–474.

Schmidt-Rhaesa A. The Evolution of Organ Systems. Oxford University Press, 2007; 110 p.

Joseph SO, Okokon JE and Joseph OT. (2018).Effect of ethanol stem extract of homalium letestuion gentamicin-induced kidney Injury in rat. Vol. 4(2). Adv. Herb. Med.. Page 51-64

Venturi S, Venturi A, Cimini D, Arduini C, Venturi M, Guidi A. "A new hypothesis: iodine and gastric cancer". Eur J Cancer Prev. 1993; 2(1):17–23.

Maton A, Hopkins J, McLaughlin CW, Johnson S, Warner MQ, LaHart D, Wright JD. Human Biology and Health. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall. 1993.

Mali RG, Mahajan SG, Mehta AA. RaktaKanchan (Bauhinia variegata): Chemistry, Traditional and Medicinal uses- a review. Pharmacogn Rev. 2007;1:314–319.

Molina D. Kimberley, DiMaio, Vincent JM. "Normal Organ Weights in Men". Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2012; 33(4):368–372.

McClatchey Kenneth D. Clinical laboratory medicine. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2012; 288 p.

Simeon JO, Simeon JO, Zubairu SA, Adegbenga AD. Concomitant administration of ethanol leaf extract of Thymus vulgaris on Diazepam– induced Sedation and Hypnosis in Wister Rat. Nurs Health Sci. 2021; 16(5):04-09.

Gupta AK, Vidyapati TJ, Chauhan JS. Chemical examination of the stem of Bauhinia variegata.Planta Med. 1980;38:174–176.

Johnston DE. "Special considerations in interpreting liver function tests". Am Fam Physician. 1999; 59(8):2223–2230.




How to Cite

Oyepata, J. S., & Adekunle, A. T. (2024). Haematological, Renal and Gastric Effects of Ethanol Leaf Extract of <i>Bauhinia variegate</i> Linn. Tropical Journal of Phytochemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3(2), 174–178. https://doi.org/10.26538/tjpps/v3i2.3