Comparative Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Dracaena arborea L. (Asparagaceae) Root, Stem and Leaf Extracts on Clinical Isolates
Keywords:Antimicrobial, Isolates, Dracaena arborea, Extracts, Minimum Inhibitory, Concentration, Minimum Fungicidal Concentration, Minimum, Minimum Bactericidal Concentration
The need for efficient antimicrobials has arisen due to the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance as well as the advent of new strains of diseasecausing agents. The antimicrobial activities of ethanol extracts of Dracaena arborea L. (Asparagaceae) were investigated against some clinical isolates using the agar disc diffusion technique. The phytochemical analysis of D. arborea revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, and alkaloids. The highest mean inhibition zone (IZ) of 30.5 ± 2.5 mm and the lowest mean IZ of 10.0 ± 0.0 mm were obtained when ethanol extracts of D. arborea were tested against the isolates. The mean IZ of Metronidazole against E. faecalis was 17.0 ± 0.0 mm and S. fonticola was 16.0 ± 1.41 mm. The Cephalexin was effective against the isolates, with the highest mean IZ against K. pneumoniae (27.5 ± 3.54 mm), S. fonticola (15.0 ± 1.41 mm), and E. faecalis (12.0 ± 0.0 mm). Fluconazole was effective against C. albicans and T. tonsurans, with a mean IZ of ≤ 20.8 ± 0.7 mm. The MIC and MBC values of ethanol extracts of D. arborea on the isolates ranged between 50 mg/mL and 200 mg/mL, respectively, with an MBC/MIC or MFC/MIC of ≤ 4. The R2 values of ethanol extracts of D. arborea and diameters of IZs as exhibited by the isolates ranged from 0.6425 to 0.9672. The study has confirmed the efficacy of extracts of D. arborea against clinical isolates and, therefore, suggests their consideration in developing synthetic drugs.
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