Phytopharmacological Activities of <i>Spondias mombin</i>Linn: A Review


  • Emuesiri G. Moke Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria.
  • Emmanuel K. Edje Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria.
  • Tarela M.E. Daubry Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria.
  • Bartholomew C. Nwogueze Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria.
  • Oghenemarho M. Ataikiru Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria.
  • Emuesiri K. Umukoro Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Basic Clinical Sciences, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria.
  • Izeigbe L. Omorodion Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria.
  • Emmanuel O. Chidebe Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria.
  • Winifred E. Demaki Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria.
  • Success O. Aluya Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria.
  • Jessica Osayande Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria.
  • Efua Edaki Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria.


Spondias mombin, phytochemicals, herbal medicine, ethnopharmacology, Anacardiaceae


This review describes the phytopharmacological activities of Spondias mombin. Spondias mombin (S. mombin) is a fructiferous tree native to tropical areas like America, Brazil, Nigeria and West India. It belongs to the cashew family of Anacardiaceae. Spondias mombin has been used as an herbal medicine from ancient times. Spondias mombin plant parts (leaves, bark, seeds, and fruits) are used for therapeutic purposes. Traditionally, the plant is being used in inducing labour, preventing miscarriages, reducing inflammation, reducing blood glucose level, amongst others. Various plant parts are also used for non-medicinal purposes like the production of cider-like drinks, wine, soap and ornamental purposes. The main bioactive compounds reported in S. mombin include tannins, phenols, saponins, anthraquinones, berberine, naphthoquinones, sesquiterpenes, indole and quinoline alkaloids, proanthocyanins, and flavonoids. Spondias mombin possesses beneficial pharmacological properties that are well-utilized in medicinal herbal therapy of several disease conditions.


Metrics Loading ...

Author Biography

Izeigbe L. Omorodion, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria.

Graduate Program in Pharmacology and Drug Development, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.


Ekor M. The growing use of herbal medicines: issues relating to adverse reactions and challenges in monitoring safety. Front Pharmacol. 2014;4:177.

James PB, Wardle J, Steel A, Adams J. Traditional, complementary and alternative medicine use in Sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. BMJ Glob Health. 2018;3(5):e000895.

Moke EG, Umukoro EK, Asiwe JN, Omogbiya AI, Erhirhie EO, Ben-Azu B, Anieh FU. Herbal Medicine: Education and Occupation Influences Its Practice among Residents of Port Harcourt, South-South Nigeria. Int J Pharm Phytopharmacol Res. 2021;11(2):38-44.

Ayoka AO, Akomolafe RO, Akinsomisoye OS, Ukponmwan OE. Medicinal and Economic Value of S. mombin. Afr J Biomed Res. 2008;11(2):129–136.

Mattietto RA, Matta VM. 15 - Cajá (S. mombin L.). Editor(s): Yahia EM. Postharvest Biology and Technology of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Ltd; 2011. p. 330-353

Adedokun MO, Oladoye AO, Oluwalana SA, Mendie II. Socio-economic importance and utilization of S. mombin in Nigeria. Asian Pacific J Tropical Med. 2010;3(3):232-234.

Moke EG, Ilodigwe EE, Okonta JM, Emudainohwo JOT, Ajaghaku DL, Erhirhie OE, Chinwuba P, Ahante E. Antidiabetic Activity and Toxicity Evaluation of Aqueous Extracts of S. mombin and Costus afer on Wistar Rats. Br J Pharm Res. 2015;6(5):333-342.

Esua OJ, Makinde OO, Arueya GL, Chin NL. Antioxidant potential, phytochemical and nutrient compositions of Nigerian hog plum (S. mombin) seed kernel as a new food source. Int Food Res J. 2016;23(Suppl):S179-S185.

Nkanu EE, Jeje SO, Ikpi DE, Ujong GO. In vivo hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effects of aqueous extract of Spondias mombin leaves and detoxification of reactive oxygen species in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Int J Biol Chem Sci. 2016;10(4):1573-1579.

Uchendu CN, Isek T. Antifertility activity of aqueous ethanolic leaf extract of S. mombin (Anacardiaceae) in rats. Afr Health Sci. 2008;8(3):163-7.

Ijioma SN, Osim EE, Nwankwo AA, Kanu KC, Orieke D. Southeast Nigerian polyherbal (AJUMBISE): A potential uterotonic and tocolytic agents. Scientific African. 2020;8:e00393.

Nworu CS, Akah PA, Okoye FB, Toukam DK, Udeh J, Esimone CO. The leaf extract of S. mombin L. displays an anti-inflammatory effect and suppresses inducible formation of tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide (NO). J Immunotoxicol. 2011;8(1):10-6.

Dos Santos Sampaio TI, de Melo NC, de Freitas Paiva BT, da Silva Aleluia GA, da Silva Neto FLP, da Silva HR, Keita H, Cruz RAS, Sánchez-Ortiz BL, Pineda-Peña EA, Balderas JL, Navarrete A, Carvalho JCT. Leaves of S. mombin L. a traditional anxiolytic and antidepressant: Pharmacological evaluation on zebrafish (Danio rerio). J Ethnopharmacol. 2018;224:563-578.

Ogunro OB, Oyeyinka BO, Gyebi GA, Batiha GE. Nutritional benefits, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological properties and toxicity of S. mombin Linn: a comprehensive review. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2023;75(2):162-226.

Santos ÉMD, Ataide JA, Coco JC, Fava ALM, Silvério LAL, Sueiro AC, Silva JRA, Lopes AM, Paiva-Santos AC, Mazzola PG. Spondias sp: Shedding Light on Its Vast Pharmaceutical Potential. Molecules. 2023;28(4):1862.

Sameh S, Al-Sayed E, Labib RM, Singab AN. Genus Spondias: A Phytochemical and Pharmacological Review. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2018;2018:5382904.

Porwal M, Gautam SK, Khan NA, Maheshwari KK. Evaluation of Toxicity and Antihyperlipidemic Activity of S. mombin l. Leaves Methanolic Extract in Laboratory Rats. Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets. 2020;20(4):289-296.

Erhirhie EO, Moke GE. Repeated Systemic Toxicity Tests: A Call for Proper Understanding of Tests Durations Nomenclature. Asia Pac J Med Toxicol. 2022;11(2):72-76.

Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Simons A. Agroforestree Database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0. World Agroforestry Centre, Kenya. 2009. Available via Accessed on 22 Mar 2023.

Coelho-Ferreira M. Medicinal knowledge and plant utilization in an Amazonian coastal community of Marudá, Pará State (Brazil). J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;126:159-175.

Uchendu CN, Isek T. Antifertility activity of aqueous ethanolic leaf extract of Spondias mombin (Anacardiaceae) in rats. Afr Health Sci. 2008;8(3):163-7.

De Lima EQ, de Oliveira E, de Brito HR. Extraction and characterization of the essential oils from S. mombin L. (Cajá), Spondias purpurea L. (Ciriguela) and Spondia ssp (Cajarana do sertão). Afr J Agric Res. 2016;11(2):105-116.

Olugbuyiro JAO, Moody JO, Hamann MT. Phytosterols from S. mombin linn with antimycobacterial activities. Afr J Biomed Res. 2013;16(1):19–24.

Abiodun OO, Nnoruka ME, Tijani RO. Phytochemical Constituents, Antioxidant Activity, and Toxicity Assessment of the Seed of S. mombin L. (Anacardiaceae). Turk J Pharm Sci. 2020;17(3):343-348.

Nakatsuji T, Kao MC, Fang JY, Zouboulis CC, Zhang L, Gallo RL, Huang CM. Antimicrobial Property of Lauric acid against Propionibacterium acnes: Its Therapeutic Potential for Inflammatory Acne Vulgaris. J Invest Dermatol. 2009;129:2480–2488.

Or-Rashid MM, Odongo NE, Subedi B, Karki P, McBride BW. Fatty acid composition of yak (Bos grunniens) cheese including conjugated linoleic acid and trans-18:1 fatty acids. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:1654–1660.

Meng Q, Yu M, Gu B, Li J, Liu Y, Zhan C, Xie C, Zhou J, Lu W. Myristic acid-conjugated polyethylenimine for brain-targeting delivery: In vivo and ex vivo imaging evaluation. J Drug Target. 2010;18:438–446.

Graikou K, Kapeta S, Aligiannis N, Sotiroudis G, Chondrogianni N, Gonos E, Chinou L. Chemical analysis of Greek pollen-antioxidant, antimicrobial and proteasome activation properties. Chem Cent J. 2011;5:33.

Aparna V, Dileep KV, Mandal PK, Karthe P, Sadasivan C, Haridas M. Antiinflammatory property of n-hexadecanoic acid: Structural evidence and kinetic assessment. Chem Biol Drug Des. 2012;80:434–439.

Fattori V, Hohmann MS, Rossaneis AC, Pinho-Ribeiro FA, Verri WA. Capsaicin: Current Understanding of Its Mechanisms and Therapy of Pain and Other Pre-Clinical and Clinical Uses. Molecules. 2016;21:844.

Cabral B, Siqueira EM, Bitencourt MO, Lima MC, Lima AK, Ortmann CF, Chaves VC, Fernandes-Pedrosa MF, Rocha HA, Scortecci KC, Reginatto FH, Giordani RB, Zucolotto SM. Phytochemical study and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential of S. mombin leaves. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia. 2016;26(3):304-311.

Ampadu GA, Mensah JO, Darko G, Borquaye LS. Essential Oils from the Fruits and Leaves of S. mombin Linn.: Chemical Composition, Biological Activity, and Molecular Docking Study. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2022;2022:7211015.

Brito GO, Reis BC, Ferreira EA, Vilela Junqueira NT, Sá-Barreto LCL, Mattivi F, Vrhovsek U, Gris EF. Phenolic Compound Profile by UPLC-MS/MS and Encapsulation with Chitosan of S. mombin L. Fruit Peel Extract from Cerrado Hotspot-Brazil. Molecules. 2022;27(8):2382.

Chaparro CM, Suchdev PS. Anemia epidemiology, pathophysiology, and etiology in low- and middle-income countries. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2019;1450(1):15-31.

Innih SO, Omage SO, Omage K. Hematinic effects of S. mombin and its protective role against the spleenotoxic effect of phenylhydrazine. Clin Phytosci. 2020;6:30.

Adeyemi AA, Gbolade AA. Anti-anaemic activity of S. mombin and Khaya grandifoliola aqueous extracts on rats. J Pharm Bioresources. 2006;3(2):94-97.

Asuquo RO, Ekanem BT, Udoh BP, Mesembe EO, Ebong EP. Haematinic Potential of S. mombin Leaf Extract in Wistar Rats. Adv Biores. 2013;4(2):53-56.

Fagbohoun L, Nonvidé G, Orou A, Houngbèmè A, Sakirigui A, Gunin F, Gbénou J. Anti-Anaemic Activity and Potential Toxicity of Extracts of Four Tinctorial Plants Used in the Treatment of Anemia in Benin: Gossypium barbadense, Sorghum bicolor, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Justicia secunda. Am J Plant Sci. 2022;13:1460-1477.

Metibemu DS, Akinloye OA, Akamo AJ, Okoye JO, Ojo DA, Morifi E, Omotuyi IO. Carotenoid isolates of S. mombin demonstrate anticancer effects in DMBA-induced breast cancer in Wistar rats through X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) antagonism and anti-inflammation. J Food Biochem. 2020;44(12):e13523.

Gbolade AA, Edom DN, Ogunleye JT, Muhammad ST. Anti-proliferative and cytotoxic properties of S. mombin L. (Anacardiaceae) stem bark. J Pharm Allied Sci. 2019;16(5):3146-3154.

Metibemu DS, Akinloye OA, Omotuyi IO, Okoye JO, Popoola MA, Akamo AJ. Carotenoid-Enriched Fractions From S. mombin Demonstrate HER2 ATP Kinase Domain Inhibition: Computational and In Vivo Animal Model of Breast Carcinoma Studies. Front Oncol. 2021;11:687190.

Akanji OC, Idu M, Omotuyi IO. Effect of S. mombin leaves’ extracts on chemically induced tumor. J Med Herbs. 2022;13(2)2:7-17.

Nishikai-Yan Shen T, Kanazawa S, Kado M, Okada K, Luo L, Hayashi A, Mizuno H, Tanaka R. Interleukin-6 stimulates Akt and p38 MAPK phosphorylation and fibroblast migration in non-diabetic but not diabetic mice.

PLoS One. 2017;12(5):e0178232.

Agbaje EO, Charles OO. Anti-inflammatory and Cytokines Modulatory Activities of S. mombin Linn. (Anacardiaceous) in Wound Healing: Roles of IL6. J Phytopharmacol. 2022;11(4):260-267.

Lanas A, Chan F. Peptic ulcer disease. Lancet. 2017;390:613–624.

Sabiu S, Garuba T, Sunmonu T, Ajani E, Sulyman A, Nurain I, Balogun A. Indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in rats: Protective roles of S. mombin and Ficus exasperata. Toxicol Rep. 2015;2:261-267.

Moke EG, Ilodigwe EE, Erhirhie OE. Evaluation of the ulcerogenic potential of the aqueous extract of S. mombin and Costus afer. IJAPBC. 2015;4(2):282-6.

Brito SA, Barbosa IS, de Almeida CLF, de Medeiros JW, Silva Neto JC, Rolim LA, da Silva TG, Ximenes RM, de Menezes IRA, Caldas GFR, Wanderley AG. Evaluation of gastroprotective and ulcer healing activities of yellow mombin juice from S. mombin L. PLoS One. 2018;13(11):e0201561.

Araruna ME, Silva P, Almeida M, Rêgo R, Dantas R, Albuquerque H, Cabral I, Apolinário N, Medeiros F, Medeiros A, Santos V. Tablet of S. mombin L. Developed from Nebulized Extract Prevents Gastric Ulcers in Mice via Cytoprotective and Antisecretory Effects. Molecules. 2021;26(6):1581.

Oluwatoyin AE, Deborah OW. Study of aqueous leaf extracts of S. mombin Linn. (Anacardiaceae) in gastric ulcer models and the possible mechanisms of action. J Phytopharmacol. 2019;8(5):238-247.

Gupta RK, Patel AK, Shah N, Chaudhary AK, Jha UK, Yadav UC, Gupta PK, Pakuwal U. Oxidative stress and antioxidants in disease and cancer: a review. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014;15(11):4405-4409.

Moke EG, Mordi JC. Effect of Methanol Leaf Extract of Cuphea Hyssopifolia Kunth on Liver Enzymes Activity and Antioxidant Indices of Paracetamol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Rats. Afr J Biomed Res. 2020;23(1):123-126.

Ali SS, Ahsan H, Zia MK, Siddiqui T, Khan FH. Understanding oxidants and antioxidants: Classical team with new players. J Food Biochem. 2020;44(3):e13145.

Nwidu LL, Elmorsy E, Oboma YI, Carter WG. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of S. mombin leaf and stem extracts against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity. J Taibah Univ Med Sci. 2018;13(3):262-271.

Lucena TLC, Batista KS, Pinheiro RO, Cavalcante HC, Gomes JAdS, Silva LAd, Lins PP, Ferreira FS, Lima RF, Lima MdS, Aquino JdS. Nutritional Characterization, Antioxidant, and Lipid-Lowering Effects of Yellow Mombin (S. mombin) Supplemented to Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet. Foods. 2022;11(19):3064.

Lenzen S. The mechanisms of alloxan- and streptozotocin-induced Diabetes. Diabetologia. 2008;51:216–226.

Etuk EU. Animals models for studying diabetes mellitus. Agric Biol J North Am. 2010;1:130-134.

Okafo SE, Moke EG, Obi CS. Formulation and evaluation of anti-diabetic tablets containing aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera seeds. J Pharm Allied Sci. 2019;16(5):3167-3176.

Ji G, Sun R, Hu H, Xu F, Yu X, Veeraraghavan VP, Mohan SK, Chi X. Vannilic acid ameliorates hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J King Saud Univ Sci. 2020;32(7):2905-2911.

Warri AO, Moke EG, Balogun AO, Nzeh KC, Umukoro EK, Erhirhie EO. Acute Toxicity and Hypoglycemic Effect of a Polyherbal Formulation on Blood Glucose in Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) and Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats. Biol Med Natural Prod Chem. 2021;10(2):111-115.

Akwu BP, Ajibade AJ, Abijo AJ, Ajibade TP, Kehinde DB, Siyanbade JA, Adelakun SA, Adeeyo OA. Co-administration of S. mombin and Metformin mitigates Streptozotocin-induced hepatorenal injury. Phytomed Plus. 2022;2(4):100360.

Asiwe JN, Moke EG, Asiwe N, Yovwin GD, Nwogueze BC, Daubry TME. Dryopteris dilatata leaf extract ameliorates streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy in male Wistar rat. Nutrire. 2022;48:1.

Moke EG, Omogbai EKI, Osagie-Eweka SDE, Uchendu AP, Omogbiya AI, Ben-Azu B, Eduviere AT, Edje KE, Umukoro EK, Anachuna KK, Asiwe JN, Ahante E, Oghoghovwe IJ. Co-administration of metformin and/or glibenclamide with losartan reverse NG-nitro-l-arginine-methyl ester-streptozotocin-induced hypertensive diabetes and haemodynamic sequelae in rats. Microvasc Res. 2023;147:104497.

Okonofua DE, Asiwe JN, Moke EG, Igie NF, Sanusi KO, Yesufu JO, Fasanmade AA. Polycythemia, Thrombocythemia, and

Hyperfibrinogenemia are Associated With Streptozotocin-induced Diabetes and Salt-induced Hypertension in Male Wistar Rats. Pharm Biomed Res. 2023;9(1):37-44.

Fred-Jaiyesimi AA, Wilkins MR, Abo KA. Hypoglycaemic and amylase inhibitory activities of leaves of S. mombin Linn. Afr J Med Med Sci. 2009;38(4):343-9.

Moke EG, Umukoro EK, Okafo SE, Asiwe JN, Eduviere AT, Omorodion IL, Erhirhie EO, Uchendu AP, Isibor NP, Eboye R. The Role of Medicinal Plants in Diabetes Mellitus and Oxidative Stress. Int J Nutr Sci. 2023;8(2):2-11.

Gobinath R, Parasuraman S, Sreeramanan S, Enugutti B, Chinni SV. Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Methanolic Extract of

Leaves of Spondias mombin in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats. Front Physiol. 2022;13:870399.

Wyss-Coray T. Ageing, neurodegeneration and brain rejuvenation. Nature. 2016;539(7628):180-186.

Asuquo OR, Udonwa UN, Eluwa MA, Ekanem TB. Effects of S. mombin Leaf Extract on the Cytoarchitecture of the Cerebal Cortex and on Learning and Memory in Wistar Rats. Int J Sci Res. 2013;2(9):5-8.

Ishola IO, Ikuomola BO, Adeyemi OO. Protective role of S. mombin leaf and Cola acuminata seed extracts against scopolamine-induced cognitive dysfunction. Alexandria J Med. 2018;54(1):27-39.

Ajayi AM, Ben-Azu B, Godson JC, Umukoro S. Effect of S. mombin Fruit Extract on Scopolamine-induced Memory Impairment and Oxidative Stress in Mice Brain. J Herbs Spices Med Plants. 2021;27(1):24-36.



How to Cite

Moke, E. G., Edje, E. K., Daubry, T. M., Nwogueze, B. C., Ataikiru, O. M., Umukoro, E. K., … Edaki, E. (2024). Phytopharmacological Activities of <i>Spondias mombin</i>Linn: A Review: Tropical Journal of Phytochemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3(1), 117–123. Retrieved from