Characterization of Microwave-Assisted Extracts of Citrus sinensis Exocarp and Mesocarp Peels for their Pharmaceutical Excipient Potentia http://www.doi.org/10.26538/tjpps/v2i1.2
Main Article Content
Natural plants wastes are increasingly explored for their excipient potentials in alignment with the present global focus on economic and sustainable waste utilization. This study characterized microwave-assisted extracts of Citrus sinensis exocarp (Cs- Exop) and mesocarp peels (Cs-Mesop) using standard protocols. The two extracts had distinctive organoleptic properties. Their respective mean particle sizes being (120.80 ± 0.12 and 99.70 ± 0.0.15 μm); pH (5.52 and 6.41); swelling index (2.08 ± 0.02 and 3.01 ± 0.07); water binding capacity (1.77 ± 0.03 and 3.32 ± 0.02 %); viscosity (12.6 ± 0.4 and 19.5 ± 0.4 mPa.s); moisture content (13.30 ± 0.17 and 18.78 ± 0.14 %); Hausner’s ratio (1.35 ± 0.01 and 1.30 ± 0.01); compressibility index (22.2 ±0.01 and 20.3 ± 0.01) among others. The microbial evaluation revealed the absence of objectionable microorganisms; the total aerobic microbial counts were 8.00 x 102 and 19.50 x 102; yeast and mould counts were 2.00 x 102 and 6.00 x 102 respectively which were in conformity to the specifications of United States Pharmacopoeia. They both had safety profiles with the lethal dose (LD50 ) values ≥ 5000 mg/kg. No occurrence of morbidity, mortality,
abnormalities on the hematological and histopathology profiles at all the administered doses in the experimental animals. No statistical significance occurred between the Control and the CS-peels treated groups. Citrus sinensis peel extracts have desirable pharmaceutical excipient attributes. Cs- Exop peel extract can be employed as a permeation enhancer,
emulgent while Cs -Mesop can serve as a potential binder and disintegrant.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Ogaji IJ, Nep EI, Audu-Peter, JD. Advances in natural polymers as pharmaceutical excipients. Pharm Anal Acta. 2012; 3: 146; 1-16.
Adi-Dako O, Ofori-Kwakye K, Frimpong SM, BoakyeGyasi, ME, Sasu C, Pobee M. Physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of cocoa pod husk pectin intended as a versatile pharmaceutical excipient and nutraceutical. J. Pharm. 2016; 1-10.
Mahato RI, Narang AS. Pharmaceutical Considerations In; Mahato RI, Narang AS (Eds.) Pharmaceutical dosage forms and drug delivery; CRC Press; Boca Raton; e Book; ISBN9780429110665; 2012. 2nd Ed. Chap 2: 13-30p
Lisha P, Patel J, Upadhiyay U. Review on co-processed excipients Int. J Pharm Res and Appl. 2020; 5(2):270-283
Forman SA. Clinical and molecular pharmacology of etomidate, Anesthesiology.2011 114; (3): 695–707.
European Medicines Agency ICH. Q8 Pharmaceutical Development 2004; 4 -5.
Arsul, VA, Lahti SR. Natural polysaccharides as Pharmaceutical excipients. World J. Pharm. Res. 2014; 3(2):3776-3790.
Sangwan YS, Sangwan S, Jalwal P, Murti K, Kaushik M. Mucilages and Their Pharmaceutical Applications: an Overview. Pharmacologyonline, 2011; 2: 1265-1271.
Beneke CE. Viljoen AM, Hamman JH. Polymeric plantderived excipients in drug delivery, Molecules. 2009; 14(7):2602–2620.
Avachat AM, Dash RR and. Shrotriya SN. Recent investigations of plant based natural gums, mucilages and resins in novel drug delivery systems. Indian J. Pharm. Educ. Res. 2011; 45(1):86–99.
Liu M, Tang C, Jia Z. Biochemical basis of fruit and vegetables. Beijing Science Press. 1988; 24-28.
Jones SL, Gibson KE, Ricke SC. Critical factors and emerging opportunities in food waste utilization and treatment technologies. Front. Sustain. Food Syst. 2021; 5:781537.
Szabolcs N. Separation strategies of plant constituentscurrent status. J. Chromatogr. B: Anal. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. 2005; 812(1-2): 35-51.
Mandal V, Yogesh Mohan Y, Hemalatha S. Microwave assisted extraction – An innovative and promising extraction tool for medicinal plant research. Pharmacognosy Reviews. 2007; 1(1):7-18.
Isopencu G, Stroescu M, Brosteanu A, Chira N, Pârvulescu C, Busuioc C, Stoica‐Guzun A. Optimization of ultrasound and microwave assisted oil extraction from sea buckthorn seeds by response surface methodology. J Food Process Eng. 2019; 42(1):e12947.
Thakur BR, Sigh RK, Handa AK, Rao MA. Chemistry and uses of pectin-A review. Food Sci. Nutr. 1997; 37:47-73.
Knox JP, Mikkelsen JD, Willats WGT. Pectin: New insights into an old polymer are starting to gel. Food Sci. Technol. 2006; 17: 97-104.
Morris G, Kök S, Harding S, Adams G, Polysaccharide drug delivery systems based on pectin and chitosan. Biotechnol Genet Eng. Rev. 2010; 27:257-84.
Seixas FL, Fukuda DL, Turbiani FRB, Garcia PS, Petkowicz CLO, Jagadevan S, Gimenes ML. Extraction of pectin from passion fruit peel (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa) by microwave-induced heating. Food Hydrocoll. 2014; 38:186– 192.
Liu Y, Shi J, Langrish TAG. Water-based extraction of pectin from flavedo and albedo of orange peels. Chemical Engineering Journal. 2006; 120:203-209.
Hiorth M, Kjoniksen AL, Nystrom B. Association under shear flow in aqueous solutions of pectin. Eur. Polym. J. 2005; 41:761-771.
Willats WGT, Knox JP, Mikkelsen JD. Pectin: new insights into an old polymer are starting to gel. Food Sci. Technol. 2006; 17:97-104.
Bansal J, Malviya R, Bhardwaj V, Shamar KP. Evaluation of banana peel pectin as excipient in solid oral dosage form. Int J Pharmacol. 2014; 8(2):275-278
Srivastava P, Malviya R, Kulkarni GT. Formulation and evaluation of paracetamol tablets to assess binding property of orange peel pectin. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res.2010; 3(1):30-34.
Nilesh RK, Nitin BM, Dipak SS, Manisha MR, Sanjay RC. Extraction of pectin from citrus fruit peel and use as a natural binder in paracetamol tablet. Der Pharm. Lett. 2012; 4(2):558-564.
Malviya R, Srivastava P, Kulkarni GT. Applications of mucilages in drug delivery – A review. Adv. Biol. Res. 2011; 5(1):01-07
Srivastaval P, Malviya R. Extraction, characterization and evaluation of Orange peel waste derived pectin as a pharmaceutical excipient. J. Nat. Prod. 2011; 1:65-70.
Nagi S, Shaw PE, Veldhuis MK. Citrus science and technology. Avi Publishing Co., Inc. Westport, Connecticut. 1977; 1:427-62,
Wang YC, Chuang YC, Ku YH. Quantitation of bioactive compounds in citrus fruits cultivated in Taiwan. Food Chem. 2007; 102:1163-1171.
Edris AE. Pharmaceutical and therapeutic potentials of essential oils and their individual volatile constituents: a review. Phytother Res. 2010; 21(4):308-323.
Auta MU, Musa DG, Tsado AA, Faruq AG, Isah S, Raji andNwanisobi C. Optimization of citrus peels D-limonene extraction using solvent-free microwave green technology using solvent-free microwave green technology. Chem Eng Commun. 2018; 205 (6 ):789-796
Aboudaou M, Ferhat MA, Hazzit M, Ariño A Djenane D. Solvent free-microwave green extraction of essential oil from orange peel (Citrus sinensis L.): effects on shelf life of favored liquid whole eggs during storage under commercial retail conditions. J. Food Meas. Charact. 2019; 13:3162–3172.
Martati E and Ciptadi PP. Extraction of baby java citrus (Citrus sinensis (L) Osbeck) peel by microwave-assisted extraction IOP Conf. Series: Environ. Earth Sci. 2020; 443:6.
Toan TQ, Truc TT, Le XT, Quyen NTC and Tran TH. Study on extraction process and analysis of components in essential oils of Vietnamese orange peel (Citrus sinensis) by microwave assisted hydrodistillation extraction IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng. 2020; 991 012125.
Wang C, Lai Q. Advances in comprehensive utilization of fruit peel in China. AJAR 2016; 4 (9): 589-592.
Maran PJV, Shidhar TKR. Optimization of microwave assisted extraction of pectin from orange peel. Carbohydr. Polym. 2013; 97(2):703-9
Menon SS, Basavaraj BV, Bharath S, Deveswaran R, Madhavan V. Der Pharm. Lett. 2011; 3(4):241-247.
Tang PY, Wong CJ, Woo KK. Optimization of pectin extraction from peel of Dragon fruit (Hylocercus polyrhizus). Asian J. Biol. Sci. 2011; 4(2):189-195.
Ologunagba MO, Azubuike CP, Silva BO. Sadiku OR. Characterization of Chrysophyllum albidum Linn (Family: Sapotaceae) Endosperm seed gum for potential application as pharmaceutical excipient. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2017; 1(5):217-222.
Muazu J, Musa H, Isah AB, Bhatia PG, Tom GM. Extractionand characterization of Kaffir Potato Starch: A potentialsource of pharmaceutical raw material. JNPR 2011; 1(2):41- 49.
Evans WC. Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy. (1989). (13thed.) London, Bailliere Tindall.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), (2000). Official methods of analysis. 17th ed., Washington, DC, USA Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC., USA.
Alim-un-Nisa NZ, Kalim I, Saeed MK, Ahmad I, Hina S. Nutritional evaluation and antioxidant activity of zest obtained from orange (Citrus sinensis) Peels, IJTAS.2017; 9(1):07-10.
Ilodibia CV, Ugwu RU, Okeke CU, Ezeabara CA, Okeke NF, Akachukwu EE, Aziagba BO. Determination of proximate composition of various parts of two Dracaena specie. Int. J. Botany.2014; 10:37-41.
The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) XXXI Microbial Limits Test USP, Microbiological examination of non-sterile products; microbial enumeration tests USP and microbiological examination of non-sterile products: Tests for specified microorganisms. 2015.
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Guidance Document on Acute Oral Toxicity Testing, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Paris, France. 2001; OECD.
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development(OECD). Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals / Section
: Health Effects Test No. 423: Acute Oral toxicity - Acute Toxic Class Method. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris, France. 2002; OECD.
Ibrahim MB, Sowemimo AA, Sofidiya MO, Badmos KB, Fageyinbo MS, AbdulKareem FB, Odukoya OA. Subacute and chronic toxicity profiles of Murkhamia tomentosa ethanolic leaf extract in rats. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2016; 193:68-75.
Tyagi, S. Extraction, characterization and evaluation of pectin from orange peels as Pharmaceutical Excipient. Glob. J. Pharmacol. 2016; 10(2):41-44.
Arora M, Kaur P. Phytochemical screening of orange peel and pulp. Int. J. Eng. Res. 2013; 2(12):517-520.
Gade J, Gotmare S. Orange Peel: A potential source of phytochemical compounds. Int. J Chemtech Res. 2018; 11(2); 240-243.
Olabinjo OO, Ogunlowo AS, Ajayi OO and Olalusi AP. Analysis of physical and chemical composition of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peels. Int. J. Environ. Agric. Biotech. 2017; 2 4:2201-2206.
Njoroge SM, Phi NTL, Sawamura M. Chemical composition of peel essential oils of sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis) from Uganda and Rwanda. J. Essent. Oil-Bear. Plants 2013: 12(1): 26-33.
Liu X, Lin C, Ma X, Tan Y, Wang J, Zeng M. Functional characterization of a flavonoid Glycosyltransferase in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). Front. Plant Sci. 2018; 9:166; 1-14.
Edris AE. Pharmaceutical and therapeutic potentials of essential oils and their individual volatile constituents: A review. Phytother Res. 2010; 21(4):308-323.
Guo Q, Liu K, Deng W, Zhong B, Yang W and Chun J. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Gannan navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Newhall) peel essential oils DOI: 10.1002/fsn3.688. Food Sci Nutr. 2018; 6:1431–1437.
Dosoky NS, Setzer WN. Biological activities and safety of Citrus spp. Essential oils. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018; 19(7):1966- 1991.
Yang C, Chen H, Chen HL, Zhong BL, Luo XZ, Chun J. Antioxidant and anticancer activities of essential oil from Gannan navel orange peel. Molecules. 2017; 22 (08):1391.
Adewole E, Adewumi OF, Jonathan J, Fadaka. Phytochemical constituents and proximate analysis of orange peel (Citrus Fruit). J. Adv. Botany Zool. 2014; 1(3)1-2. V113. DOI: 10.15297/JABZ.V1I3.02
Bruneton J, Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants. 2nd Edn. Intercept Ltd., Hampshire, UK. 1999; 385- 386.
Kumar KA, Narayani M, Subanthini A, Jayakumar M. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of citrus fruit peels - utilization of fruit waste. Int. J. Eng. Sci. 2011: 3(6):5414-5421.
Manthey JA, Fractionation of orange peel phenols in ultrafiltered molasses and balance studies of their antioxidant levels. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2004; 52:7586-7592
Kanaze FI, Termentzi A, Gabrieli C, Niopas I, Georgarakis M, Kokkaloua E. The phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity assessment of orange peel (Citrus sinensis) cultivated in Greece–Crete indicates a new commercial source of hesperidin; Biomed. Chromatogr. 2009; 23:239–249.
Shetty SB, Mahin-Syed-Ismail P, Varghese S, ThomasGeorge B, Kandathil-Thajuraj P, Baby D, Haleem S, Sreedhar S, Devang-Divakar D. Antimicrobial effects of Citrus sinensis peel extracts against dental caries bacteria: An in-vitro study. J Clin Exp Dent. 2016; 1; 8(1):e71-77.